Y-DNA Haplogroups

This page is a summary of the Y-DNA haplogroups all originating from our common original human ancestor in Africa (commonly referred to as ‘Y-Adam’). Current scientific evidence points to this early human living in Northwest/Central Africa some 240, 000 years ago. All current living males carry his DNA, but as small groups of people migrated away, they developed single mutations, which they then passed on to their sons, and their son’s sons. Other groups who took a different path out of Africa didn’t have these mutations, but developed their own unique mutations. An analysis of all of these mutations in the human genome has enabled us to identify 20 major groupings called haplogroups, each of which is further split up into subclades and sub-sub clades etc. as humans evolved and migrated across the world. During this migration, some groups settled and spread their particular mutations to future generations in the same area, whereas others moved on and started their own dynasties in different parts of the world. By analysing the frequency of particular haplogroups and subclades in different parts of the world, scientists have been able to develop migration maps of the path modern humans paternal ancestors took, right up to today. The maps below, taken from Family Tree DNA’s website (https://www.familytreedna.com/my/y-dna-migration-map/ ) show the most likely route of each of these 20 haplogroups. By doing a Y-DNA test, you will find out which of these routes your paternal ancestors took.


Haplogroup A

Haplogroup A is the first Y-Chromosome lineage to diverge, from which all Y-branches are descended. Haplogroup A is restricted to Africa, where it is present in several populations at low frequency, but is most commonly found in populations of the Koi and the San tribes of Southern Africa. Early sub-branches of A have been found in central Africa.


Haplogroup B

Haplogroup B is one of the oldest Y-chromosome lineages in humans. Haplogroup B is found almost exclusively in Africa. This lineage was likely the first to disperse around Africa, approximately 90-130 thousand years ago. Haplogroup B appears at low frequency all around Africa, but is at its highest frequency in Pygmy populations.


Haplogroup C

Haplogroup C is found throughout mainland Asia, the south Pacific, New Guinea, Australia, and at low frequencies in Native American populations.


Haplogroup D

Haplogroup D evolved in Asia. This Haplogroup was later displaced from much of Asia by other colonizing groups, but is still present at intermediate frequencies in the aboriginal Japanese and on the Tibetan plateau. It is also found at low frequencies in Mongolian populations and the Altais people of central Asia.


Haplogroup E

Haplogroup E is an African lineage. It is currently believed that this haplogroup dispersed south from northern Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E is also the most common lineage among African Americans. It is an old, diverse haplogroup with many branches and is found distributed throughout Africa today. It is also found at a very low frequency in North Africa and the Middle East.


Haplogroup F

Haplogroup F is the parent haplogroup of branches G through T. F lineages are extremely rare and are distributed in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. Future work will better resolve the distribution and historical characteristics of this haplogroup.


Haplogroup G

Haplogroup G was the first branch of Haplogroup F outside of Africa. G is found mostly in the north central Middle East and the Caucasus, with smaller numbers around the Mediterranean and eastward. Haplogroup G represents one of the first peoples in Europe.


Haplogroup H

Haplogroup H is nearly completely restricted to India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan


Haplogroup I

Haplogroup I dates to 23,000 years ago, or older. This haplogroup is found throughout Europe, although some branches may be present in low frequencies in Northeast Africa, Central Siberia, the Near East, and the Caucasus regions. Haplogroup I represents one of the first peoples in Europe.


Haplogroup J

Haplogroup J is found at highest frequencies in the Middle East, west of the Zagros Mountains in Iran, to the Mediterranean Sea, and encompassing the entire Arabian Peninsula. It is also found in north African populations where it has been carried by Middle Eastern traders into Europe, central Asia, India, and Pakistan.


Haplogroup K

The K lineage is presently found at low frequencies in Africa, Asia, and in the south Pacific. One descendent line of this lineage is restricted to aboriginal Australians, while another is found at low frequency in southern Europe, Northern Africa, and the Middle East.


Haplogroup L

Haplogroup L is found primarily in India and Sri Lanka, and has also spread into several Middle Eastern populations (Turks, Saudis, and Pakistanis). It is also found at very low frequencies in Europe.


Haplogroup M

Haplogroup M is completely confined to the South Pacific. It most probably originated in Melanesia, and then spread into Indonesia, Micronesia, and New Guinea.


Haplogroup N

Haplogroup N is distributed throughout Northern Eurasia and Siberia. It is the most common Y-chromosome type in Uralic speakers (Finns and Native Siberians). It is also found in Mongolia.


Haplogroup O

Haplogroup O dates to about 35,000 years ago when it evolved in Central or East Asia. Over 80% of today’s East Asian population is haplogroup O, and this lineage is nearly completely restricted to Asian populations.


Haplogroup P

Haplogroup P is an extremely rare haplogroup at this time. It is the ancestral line to haplogroups Q, R and T. It is found at low frequency in India, Pakistan, and central Asia.

HaplogroupR 1

Haplogroup R

Haplogroup R originated in Central Asia. Most descendants belong to one of two major lineages. They are present at low frequencies across Central Asia, South Asia, and Europe.


Haplogroup Q

Haplogroup Q is the lineage that links Asia and the Americas. This lineage is found in North and Central Asian populations, as well as Native Americans. Among European populations, haplogroup Q is most frequently found in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. This lineage is believed to have originated in Central Asia and migrated through the Altai/Baikal region of northern Eurasia into the Americas.

Haplogroup S

Haplogroup S

Haplogroup S-M230 is an Oceanic lineage and is found primarily in populations in Papau New Guinea, with lower frequencies in Melanisia and Indonesia.


Haplogroup T

Haplogroup T is presently found in southern Europe, Northern Africa, and the Middle East.